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Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

Miriam K. Joshua, Cosmo Ngongondo, Fellistus Chipungu, Maurice Monjerezi, Emma Liwenga, Amos Majule, Tanya Stathers, Richard Lamboll

Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies; Vol 8, No 3 (2016), 10 pages. doi: 10.4102/jamba.v8i3.255

Submitted: 01 October 2015
Published:  08 April 2016

Abstract

Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1) assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2) determine their local adaptive measures, (3) evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4) challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.

Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis


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Author affiliations

Miriam K. Joshua, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Malawi, Malawi
Cosmo Ngongondo, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Malawi, Malawi
Fellistus Chipungu, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Bvumbwe Agriculture Research Station, Malawi
Maurice Monjerezi, Department of Chemistry, University of Malawi, Malawi
Emma Liwenga, Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic Of
Amos Majule, Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic Of
Tanya Stathers, Natural Resource Institute, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom
Richard Lamboll, Natural Resource Institute, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom

Keywords

Food Security, Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

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ISSN: 1996-1421 (print) | ISSN: 2072-845X (online)

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